Next.js with Typescript

15 April 2024

Mastering Next.js with TypeScript: A Comprehensive Guide for Developers

Ed Robinson, Lead Software Engineer

Setting Up a Next.js Project with TypeScript

When embarking on a new project using Next.js with TypeScript, the first step is to set up your development environment and project structure. This section will guide you through the process of installing the necessary dependencies, configuring TypeScript in your Next.js project, and organizing your project files for optimal development workflow.

Installing Next.js and TypeScript Dependencies

To get started, you'll need to have Node.js installed on your machine. Once you have Node.js set up, you can create a new Next.js project using the create-next-app command. The latest versions of create-next-app include TypeScript support by default, making it even easier to set up a TypeScript-first development experience.

npx create-next-app@latest --typescript my-app

If you have an existing Next.js project and want to add TypeScript support, you can do so by installing the necessary TypeScript dependencies:

npm install --save-dev typescript @types/react @types/node

Next, rename your .js or .jsx files to .ts or .tsx, respectively. Next.js will automatically detect and configure TypeScript for you.

Configuring TypeScript in Next.js

Next.js provides a default tsconfig.json file with recommended settings for TypeScript configuration. However, you may need to update the file to include additional configuration options specific to your project's needs.

Here are a few key configuration options to consider:

  • "paths": Allows you to define module path aliases for easier imports.

  • "baseUrl": Specifies the base directory to resolve non-absolute module names.

  • "jsx": Determines the JSX emit mode for TypeScript.

Next.js also supports built-in types for static generation and server-side rendering, such as GetStaticProps, GetStaticPaths, and GetServerSideProps. These types help ensure type safety when fetching data during the build process or at runtime.

Organizing Your Project Structure

A well-organized project structure is crucial for maintainability and scalability. When setting up your Next.js project with TypeScript, consider the following directory structure:

  ├── pages/
  │   ├── api/
  │   ├── _app.tsx
  │   ├── _document.tsx
  │   └── index.tsx
  ├── public/
  ├── styles/
  ├── components/
  ├── lib/
  ├── types/
  ├── tsconfig.json
  ├── next-env.d.ts
  └── package.json
  • pages/: Contains your Next.js pages and API routes.

  • public/: Stores static assets like images, fonts, and favicons.

  • styles/: Holds your global styles or CSS modules.

  • components/: Contains reusable React components.

  • lib/: Includes utility functions, services, or third-party library configurations.

  • types/: Stores TypeScript type definitions and declarations.

By organizing your project files in a logical and consistent manner, you can enhance code readability, reusability, and collaboration among team members.

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By following these steps and best practices, you'll be well on your way to setting up a robust and type-safe Next.js project with TypeScript. In the next sections, we'll dive deeper into the benefits of using TypeScript in Next.js and explore advanced topics like creating type-safe API routes and optimizing data fetching.

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The Benefits of Using TypeScript in Next.js

TypeScript has gained significant popularity among developers, and for good reason. When it comes to building applications with Next.js, incorporating TypeScript can bring numerous benefits to the development process. Let's explore some of the key advantages of using TypeScript in your Next.js projects.

Looking for a comparison of Typescript and Javascript? Click here.

Improved Type Safety and Error Detection

One of the primary benefits of using TypeScript is the enhanced type safety it provides. By adding type annotations to your code, you can catch potential errors and bugs at compile-time, rather than encountering them at runtime. TypeScript's static typing system helps you identify issues such as incorrect function arguments, mismatched types, and undefined variables before your code even runs.

With TypeScript, you can define the expected types for function parameters, return values, and variables. This allows the TypeScript compiler to perform type checking and alert you to any discrepancies or type mismatches. By catching these errors early in the development process, you can save valuable time and effort that would otherwise be spent debugging runtime issues.

Enhanced Code Maintainability and Readability

TypeScript promotes code maintainability and readability by providing a clear and explicit structure to your codebase. By adding type annotations to your code, you effectively create a form of documentation that describes the expected types and behaviors of your variables, functions, and components.

When working on a large-scale Next.js project with multiple developers, having well-documented and typed code becomes crucial. It allows team members to quickly understand the purpose and usage of different parts of the codebase, making collaboration and code reviews more efficient. TypeScript's type annotations serve as a form of self-documentation, reducing the need for extensive comments.

Moreover, TypeScript's static typing system enables powerful tooling support. Integrated development environments (IDEs) and code editors can leverage the type information to provide intelligent code completion, refactoring capabilities, and real-time feedback on potential type errors. This enhances the developer experience and helps catch mistakes before they even make it into the codebase.

Creating Type-Safe API Routes in Next.js

Next.js provides a powerful feature called API Routes, which allows you to create server-side endpoints within your application. When combined with TypeScript, you can create type-safe API routes that provide better development experience and catch potential errors at compile-time. Let's explore how to create type-safe API routes in Next.js.

Defining API Routes with TypeScript

To define an API route in Next.js, you need to create a file inside the pages/api directory. For example, let's create a file named hello.ts with the following code:

import { NextApiRequest, NextApiResponse } from 'next';

export default function handler(req: NextApiRequest, res: NextApiResponse) {
  res.status(200).json({ message: 'Hello, TypeScript!' });

In this example, we import the NextApiRequest and NextApiResponse types from the next package. These types provide type definitions for the req and res objects, respectively. By using these types, we ensure that our API route handler function receives the correct types for the request and response objects.

Handling Request and Response Types

When working with API routes, you often need to handle different types of requests and send appropriate responses. TypeScript can help you define the expected types for request parameters, request bodies, and response data.

Here's an example that demonstrates type-safe request and response handling:

import { NextApiRequest, NextApiResponse } from 'next';

interface User {
  id: number;
  name: string;

export default function handler(req: NextApiRequest, res: NextApiResponse<User>) {
  if (req.method === 'GET') {
    const userId = parseInt( as string);
    // Fetch user data based on userId
    const user: User = {
      id: userId,
      name: 'John Doe',
  } else {

In this example, we define an interface User to represent the structure of the user data. We use this interface as the type parameter for NextApiResponse<User>, indicating that the response will contain user data.

Inside the handler function, we check the request method using req.method. If it's a GET request, we extract the userId from the query parameters using We then fetch the user data based on the userId and send it as the response using res.status(200).json(user).

Implementing Dynamic and Catch-All API Routes

Next.js supports dynamic and catch-all API routes, allowing you to create flexible and reusable endpoints. TypeScript can help you ensure type safety when working with dynamic routes.

Here's an example of a dynamic API route:

import { NextApiRequest, NextApiResponse } from 'next';

export default function handler(req: NextApiRequest, res: NextApiResponse) {
  const { productId } = req.query;
  // Fetch product data based on productId
  const product = {
    id: productId,
    name: 'Sample Product',
    price: 9.99,

In this example, we define a dynamic API route that handles requests to /api/products/[productId]. The productId is extracted from the query parameters using req.query.productId. We then fetch the product data based on the productId and send it as the response.

For catch-all API routes, you can use the [...slug] syntax to match any path segments after the base path. TypeScript can help you handle the dynamic segments and ensure type safety.

By leveraging TypeScript in your Next.js API routes, you can create type-safe endpoints that provide a better development experience and catch potential errors early in the development process.

Data Fetching with getStaticProps and getServerSideProps

Next.js provides two powerful data fetching methods, getStaticProps and getServerSideProps, which allow you to fetch data and pre-render pages with the fetched data. When using TypeScript with Next.js, it's important to properly type these methods to ensure type safety and improve the developer experience.

Typing getStaticProps and getServerSideProps

To type getStaticProps and getServerSideProps with TypeScript, you can use the GetStaticPropsContext<PageParams> and GetServerSidePropsContext<PageParams> types respectively for the context parameter. For the return value, use GetStaticPropsResult<ContentPageProps> for getStaticProps.

Here's an example of typing getStaticProps:

import { GetStaticPropsContext, GetStaticPropsResult } from 'next';

type PageParams = {
  slug: string;

type ContentPageProps = {
  content: string;

export async function getStaticProps(
  context: GetStaticPropsContext<PageParams>
): Promise<GetStaticPropsResult<ContentPageProps>> {
  const { slug } = context.params!;
  const content = await fetchContent(slug);

  return {
    props: {

Error Handling in Data Fetching Methods

When fetching data in getStaticProps or getServerSideProps, it's crucial to handle errors gracefully. Wrap the data fetching logic in a try-catch block to catch any potential errors. If an error occurs, you can return a fallback page or an error message to the user.

export async function getStaticProps(
  context: GetStaticPropsContext<PageParams>
): Promise<GetStaticPropsResult<ContentPageProps>> {
  try {
    const { slug } = context.params!;
    const content = await fetchContent(slug);

    return {
      props: {
  } catch (error) {
    console.error('Error fetching content:', error);
    return {
      notFound: true,

Optimizing Performance with Caching Strategies

When using getServerSideProps, you can leverage caching strategies to optimize performance and reduce the load on your server. By setting appropriate caching headers, such as Cache-Control, you can cache dynamic responses and serve them from the cache for subsequent requests.

However, before resorting to getServerSideProps, consider using getStaticProps with Incremental Static Regeneration (ISR) first. ISR allows you to update static pages without rebuilding the entire site, providing a good balance between performance and freshness of data.

Here's an example of using caching headers with getServerSideProps:

export async function getServerSideProps(
  context: GetServerSidePropsContext<PageParams>
) {
  const { slug } = context.params!;
  const content = await fetchContent(slug);

    'public, s-maxage=60, stale-while-revalidate=30'

  return {
    props: {

In this example, the Cache-Control header is set to cache the response for 60 seconds (s-maxage=60) and allow serving stale content for an additional 30 seconds while revalidating in the background (stale-while-revalidate=30).

By properly typing your data fetching methods, handling errors, and implementing caching strategies, you can create robust and performant Next.js applications with TypeScript.

Best Practices for Using TypeScript in Next.js

When working with TypeScript in a Next.js project, following best practices can greatly enhance code quality, maintainability, and developer productivity. Let's explore some key areas where adopting best practices can make a significant difference.

Defining Clear and Reusable Type Definitions

One of the primary benefits of using TypeScript is the ability to define clear and reusable type definitions. By leveraging TypeScript's type system, you can create type aliases and interfaces to represent the shape of your data structures, component props, and API responses. This helps ensure type safety throughout your codebase and improves code readability.

Consider the following example:

interface User {
  id: string;
  name: string;
  email: string;

type ProductCategory = 'electronics' | 'clothing' | 'books';

interface Product {
  id: string;
  name: string;
  category: ProductCategory;
  price: number;

By defining the User interface and the ProductCategory type alias, you establish clear contracts for the data structures used in your application. These type definitions can be reused across components, pages, and utility functions, promoting consistency and reducing the likelihood of type-related errors.

Implementing Robust Error Handling Mechanisms

Error handling is crucial in any application, and TypeScript provides powerful tools to implement robust error handling mechanisms. By defining custom error types and leveraging TypeScript's type system, you can create a structured approach to handling errors in your Next.js application.

Consider the following example:

class ApiError extends Error {
  constructor(public statusCode: number, message: string) {

async function fetchData(): Promise<Data> {
  try {
    const response = await fetch('');
    if (!response.ok) {
      throw new ApiError(response.status, 'Failed to fetch data');
    return response.json();
  } catch (error) {
    if (error instanceof ApiError) {
      console.error(`API error (${error.statusCode}): ${error.message}`);
    } else {
      console.error('Unknown error:', error);
    throw error;

In this example, we define a custom ApiError class that extends the built-in Error class. It includes a statusCode property to capture the HTTP status code of the error. By throwing instances of ApiError, we can differentiate between API errors and other types of errors in our error handling logic. This allows for more granular error handling and logging based on the error type.

Organizing Code for Scalability and Maintainability

As your Next.js application grows in size and complexity, organizing your codebase becomes increasingly important. TypeScript's module system and type-checking capabilities can help you structure your code in a scalable and maintainable way.

Consider the following directory structure:


In this example, we organize our codebase into logical directories based on their purpose. The components directory contains reusable UI components, while the pages directory holds the Next.js pages. The types directory centralizes our type definitions, and the utils directory contains utility functions for API calls and helper functions.

By structuring our code in this manner and leveraging TypeScript's type-checking, we can ensure a clear separation of concerns, improve code reusability, and maintain a scalable architecture.

Leveraging TypeScript for Testing and Debugging

TypeScript's static type-checking capabilities can greatly aid in testing and debugging your Next.js application. By catching type-related errors during the development phase, TypeScript helps identify potential issues early on, reducing the chances of runtime errors.

When writing tests for your Next.js components and pages, you can leverage TypeScript's type annotations to ensure that the test inputs and outputs align with the expected types. This adds an extra layer of safety and helps catch type-related issues in your tests.

Consider the following example using Jest and React Testing Library:

import { render, screen } from '@testing-library/react';
import ProductDetail from '../pages/products/[id]';

describe('ProductDetail', () => {
  it('renders the product name and price', () => {
    const product: Product = {
      id: '1',
      name: 'Example Product',
      category: 'electronics',
      price: 99.99,

    render(<ProductDetail product={product} />);

    expect(screen.getByText('Example Product')).toBeInTheDocument();

In this example, we define a product object that adheres to the Product type defined earlier. By passing this object to the ProductDetail component in our test, we ensure that the component receives the expected data structure. TypeScript's type-checking helps catch any discrepancies between the test data and the component's expected props.

Furthermore, TypeScript's type annotations can enhance the debugging experience by providing more context and information about variables and data structures during runtime. This can help identify issues more quickly and facilitate code comprehension.

Optimizing Developer Experience and Productivity

When working with Next.js and TypeScript, optimizing your developer experience and productivity is crucial for efficient development. Here are some key strategies to enhance your workflow and maximize your productivity:

Integrating TypeScript with Development Tools

To streamline your development process, it's essential to integrate TypeScript seamlessly with your development tools. Here are a few ways to achieve this:

  • Use a TypeScript-aware code editor or IDE that provides features like code completion, type checking, and refactoring. Popular options include Visual Studio Code, WebStorm, and IntelliJ IDEA.

  • Leverage TypeScript plugins and extensions for your editor to enhance the development experience. These plugins can provide additional type information, linting, and code navigation capabilities.

  • Configure your build tools and development server to automatically compile TypeScript code and provide real-time feedback on type errors.

By integrating TypeScript with your development tools, you can catch errors early, navigate your codebase more efficiently, and benefit from intelligent code suggestions.

Establishing Coding Guidelines and Best Practices

Establishing clear coding guidelines and best practices within your team can greatly improve code consistency, maintainability, and collaboration. Consider the following:

  • Define a consistent code style and formatting conventions for your TypeScript codebase. Use tools like ESLint and Prettier to enforce these guidelines automatically.

  • Establish naming conventions for variables, functions, and types to enhance code readability and understandability.

  • Document your code using TypeScript's type annotations and JSDoc comments to provide clear explanations of functions, classes, and modules.

  • Regularly review and refactor your code to maintain a clean and organized codebase. Utilize TypeScript's type system to identify potential issues and optimize code structure.

Leveraging Community Resources and Ecosystem

The TypeScript and Next.js communities offer a wealth of resources and tools that can greatly enhance your development experience. Take advantage of the following:

  • Explore popular TypeScript libraries and frameworks that integrate well with Next.js. These libraries often provide type definitions and seamless integration, saving you time and effort.

  • Utilize community-driven type definitions from the DefinitelyTyped repository to add type safety to external libraries that lack built-in TypeScript support.

  • Engage with the TypeScript and Next.js communities through forums, chat channels, and social media. Share knowledge, ask questions, and learn from experienced developers.


In this comprehensive guide, we've explored the power of combining Next.js with TypeScript to build robust and scalable web applications. From setting up your project and leveraging TypeScript's benefits to creating type-safe API routes and implementing best practices, you now have the knowledge to take your Next.js development to the next level.

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caisy's blueprint functionality allows you to define reusable components and standalone documents, enabling you to build complex designs efficiently. Its flexible pricing tiers and partnership opportunities make it an attractive choice for projects of various sizes and budgets.

By combining the power of Next.js, TypeScript, and caisy, you can streamline your development process, ensure type safety, and deliver exceptional web experiences to your users. So why wait? Sign up for a free caisy account today and unlock the full potential of your Next.js and TypeScript development!

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